India in 2004: Political Transitions and Economic Growth

India witnessed significant political, economic, and social developments in 2004, marking a year of transition and change for the nation. From national elections to economic reforms and social initiatives, let’s delve into the key events and trends that defined India’s journey in 2004.

General Elections and Political Landscape

The year 2004 was marked by the general elections in India, which saw the defeat of the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government. The Indian National Congress (INC)-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA) emerged victorious, forming the new government with Dr. Manmohan Singh as the Prime Minister. The elections reflected the vibrant democracy of India and the electorate’s desire for change and inclusivity in governance.

Economic Reforms and Growth

India continued its economic reforms and witnessed robust economic growth in 2004. The government focused on liberalizing key sectors, promoting foreign investment, and fostering entrepreneurship. Initiatives such as the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) aimed to alleviate poverty and promote rural development. Additionally, India’s IT and outsourcing sectors continued to thrive, contributing to the country’s emergence as a global economic powerhouse.

Social Initiatives and Welfare Programs

2004 saw the Indian government launching various social initiatives and welfare programs to address poverty, healthcare, and education. Programs such as the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) aimed to achieve universal elementary education, while the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) focused on improving healthcare access in rural areas. The government also implemented schemes to promote women’s empowerment, environmental sustainability, and social inclusion.

Foreign Policy and Global Engagement

India’s foreign policy in 2004 emphasized strengthening regional and global partnerships while safeguarding national interests. The government pursued strategic alliances and diplomatic engagements with key stakeholders, including neighboring countries, major powers, and international organizations. India’s role in regional forums such as the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and its increasing presence on the global stage underscored its growing influence and stature in international affairs.


In conclusion, India in 2004 experienced a year of political transitions, economic growth, and social initiatives. The democratic exercise of general elections, coupled with continued economic reforms and social welfare programs, reflected India’s commitment to inclusive development and progress. As India navigated through the opportunities and challenges of the year, it reaffirmed its position as a vibrant democracy and a rising global power, setting the stage for further growth and transformation in the years to come.


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